Brainstem nucleus incertus controls contextual memory formation

Hippocampal pyramidal cells encode memory engrams, which guide adaptive behavior. Selection of engram-forming cells is regulated by somatostatin-positive dendrite-targeting interneurons, which inhibit pyramidal cells that are not required for memory formation. Here, we found that -aminobutyric acid (GABA)–releasing neurons of the mouse nucleus incertus (NI) selectively inhibit somatostatin-positive interneurons in the hippocampus, both monosynaptically and indirectly through the inhibition of their subcortical excitatory inputs. We demonstrated that NI GABAergic neurons receive monosynaptic inputs from brain areas processing important environmental information, and their hippocampal projections are strongly activated by salient environmental inputs in vivo. Optogenetic manipulations of NI GABAergic neurons can … Continue reading Brainstem nucleus incertus controls contextual memory formation

Which PBM Best Managed Drug Spending in 2018: CVS Health, Express Scripts, MedImpact, or Prime Therapeutics?

It’s time for our annual Drug Channels’ examination of drug spending reports. For 2018, we again aim our magnifying glass at the annual trend reports from four large pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs): CVS Health, Express Scripts, MedImpact, and Prime Therapeutics. (See their report links below.) The other large PBMs—Humana and OptumRx (UnitedHealth)—provide no public transparency into their performance. Using these data, which account for most of the commercial market, we detect the following key trends for 2018: Once again, we find that drug spending is not skyrocketing—contrary to what you often hear from journalists and politicians. Spending grew by about … Continue reading Which PBM Best Managed Drug Spending in 2018: CVS Health, Express Scripts, MedImpact, or Prime Therapeutics?

Reimbursement and Access 2019

Reimbursement and Access 2019 August 13-14, 2019 | DoubleTree by Hilton Center City | Philadelphia, PA www.cbinet.com/Reimbursement For all companies within the life sciences arena, staying on the pulse of emerging trends, ensuring favorable reimbursement and justifying product prices are core pillars of overall product success. Whether your organization is pre-commercial or managing multiple products, CBI’s Reimbursement and Access conference convenes stakeholders from across the life sciences community to provide insight into real-time policy briefings, impactful managed markets trends and strategies to ensure product access. Drug Channels readers can register using discount code QEF679 to receive $500 off* the standard … Continue reading Reimbursement and Access 2019

A New Starting Point for Patient Support: Technology-Driven Hub Services

Today’s guest post comes from Erica Conroy, VP of Specialty at CoverMyMeds and Bill Nolan, VP/GM of Access and Adherence at RxCrossroads by McKesson. Erica and Bill discuss the challenges that specialty pharmacy patients encounter when accessing and utilizing hub services. They also present evidence showing that how hub services positively affect patient outcomes. To learn more, download CoverMyMeds’ whitepaper: Revolutionizing Patient Access and Support for Specialty Therapies: Multiple Sclerosis. Read on for their insights. Read more » Copyright © 2006-2019 Pembroke Consulting, Inc. d/b/a Drug Channels Institute. Drug Channels® is a registered trademark of Pembroke Consulting, Inc. This Feed … Continue reading A New Starting Point for Patient Support: Technology-Driven Hub Services

Reactivation of PTEN tumor suppressor for cancer treatment through inhibition of a MYC-WWP1 inhibitory pathway

Activation of tumor suppressors for the treatment of human cancer has been a long sought, yet elusive, strategy. PTEN is a critical tumor suppressive phosphatase that is active in its dimer configuration at the plasma membrane. Polyubiquitination by the ubiquitin E3 ligase WWP1 (WW domain–containing ubiquitin E3 ligase 1) suppressed the dimerization, membrane recruitment, and function of PTEN. Either genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of WWP1 triggered PTEN reactivation and unleashed tumor suppressive activity. WWP1 appears to be a direct MYC (MYC proto-oncogene) target gene and was critical for MYC-driven tumorigenesis. We identified indole-3-carbinol, a compound found in cruciferous vegetables, … Continue reading Reactivation of PTEN tumor suppressor for cancer treatment through inhibition of a MYC-WWP1 inhibitory pathway

Erratum for the Report “Conformationally supple glucose monomers enable synthesis of the smallest cyclodextrins” by D. Ikuta, Y. Hirata, S. Wakamori, H. Shimada, Y. Tomabechi, Y. Kawasaki, K. Ikeuchi, T. Hagimori, S. Matsumoto, H. Yamada

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340B Health Gets It Wrong … Again

This week, Drug Channels published our annual update on the growth of the 340B Drug Pricing Program. See 340B Program Purchases Reach $24.3 Billion—7%+ of the Pharma Market—As Hospitals’ Charity Care Flatlines. Right on cue, 340B Health, which lobbies for hospitals that participate in the 340B program, immediately issued its annual rebuttal of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) data that we used. 340B Health was particularly distressed that our analyses “focused on 340B sales instead of discounts.” Below, you will see that when the program is measured using 340B Health’s suggested approach, it accounted for 9% to 11% … Continue reading 340B Health Gets It Wrong … Again

EXCLUSIVE: 340B Program Purchases Reach $24.3 Billion—7%+ of the Pharma Market—As Hospitals’ Charity Care Flatlines

The 340B Drug Pricing Program continues to expand at double-digit rates. According to our government contacts, discounted 340B purchases hit a record $24.3 billion in 2018. That figure is an astonishing 26% higher than its 2017 counterpart. What’s more, we have found that since 2014, purchases under the program have grown at an average rate of 28% per year. By comparison, manufacturers’ net drug revenues have grown at an average rate of below 5% over the same period. Consequently, the 340B program has grown to account for at least 7% to 8% of the total U.S. drug market. Nearly all … Continue reading EXCLUSIVE: 340B Program Purchases Reach $24.3 Billion—7%+ of the Pharma Market—As Hospitals’ Charity Care Flatlines